Investigation of the effect of adding graphene oxide, graphene nanoplatelet, and multiwalled carbon nanotube additives with n-butanol-Jatropha methyl ester on a diesel engine performance

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The GO, GNPs and MWCNTs analyzed by TEM, FTIR and XRD.

Brake specific fuel consumption reduced by 35%.

pmax, dp/dθ, and dQg/dθ reduced with adding GO, GNPs and MWCNTs.

NOx, CO, and UHC reduced by 45%, 55%, and 50%, respectively.


In this article, the carbon nanomaterials; graphene oxide (GO), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were mixed with 60% (by volume) jatropha methyl ester and 40% (by volume) n-butanol fuel (JME40B) to examine the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine. The GO, GNPs, and MWCNTs with a concentration of 50 mg/l were mixed with JME40B blends using ultrasonication technique. The engine was run under various loads at a constant speed of 2000 rpm. The results for JME40B blended fuel showed that the peak pressure and brake specific fuel consumption were increased up to 6%, and 22% respectively compared to pure diesel fuel. Furthermore, the addition of carbon nanomaterials with JMB40B resulted in a significant reduction in the specific fuel consumption by 35% and the engine exhaust emissions; NOx, CO, and UHC were reduced by 45%, 55%, and 50%, respectively compared to pure JME40B blends. Consequently, adding high n-butanol ratio with jatropha biodiesel fuel with the addition of carbon nanomaterials has the possibility to reach ultra-low NOx, CO, and UHC emissions meanwhile maintaining high thermal efficiency level.


Jatropha methyl ester


Carbon nanomaterials

Heat release rate

Engine performance

Emission characteristics

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