The system is modeled to optimize the techno-economic and environmental performance.
The system can control both power dispatching and home appliance scheduling.
The trade-off among cost, energy consumption and inconvenience is considered.
The designed simple switching control structure is easy to implement at low cost.
This paper presents a power management system of a household photovoltaic-battery hybrid power system within demand side management under time of use electricity tariff. This system is easy to implement by employing cheap electrical switches, off-the-shelf chargers and inverters. Control system models combining both power dispatching level and home appliance scheduling level are proposed to minimize the residents’ energy cost and energy consumption from the grid with the practical constraints strictly satisfied. In addition, the resident comfort inconvenience level is considered in the control system models. The trade-off among operating cost, energy consumption and inconvenience is considered and a multi-objective optimization problem is formulated. The optimal control strategies are derived by solving a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. Simulation results show that the energy cost and energy consumption from the grid can be largely reduced with the proposed strategies. These results are important for customers to dispel their major uncertainty in determining whether to newly install or update to such photovoltaic-battery hybrid power systems.
- Solar energy;
- Hybrid power system;
- Optimal control;
- Demand side management
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.