Automatic generation control of an interconnected two-area hybrid thermal system considering dish-stirling solar thermal and wind turbine system


Application of dish-Stirling solar thermal in AGC of interconnected hybrid system.

BBO technique is used for simultaneous optimisation of classical controller gains.

Effect of changes in solar, wind energy sources & area capacity ratio is tested out.

Random load perturbation is applied in hybrid system to inspect the power balance.

Integration of dish-Stirling solar thermal for AGC is safely attributed.


This article presents automatic generation control (AGC) of an interconnected two-area hybrid thermal system with additional power generation from dish-Stirling solar thermal system (DSTS) and wind turbine system (WTS). Each area is equipped with Integral (I), Proportional-Integral (PI), and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) as secondary controllers to regulate power output of thermal system and maintain the power balance. This facilitates maintaining the frequency close to its nominal value. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO) technique is used for simultaneous optimization of controller parameters. System dynamics are evaluated with step load perturbation and random load perturbation in Area1. The performance of PID is found improved in comparison to I and PI controller in terms of settling time, peak deviation and magnitude of oscillation. Investigation shows that BBO optimized PID controller parameters obtained at nominal conditions are robust enough and not necessary to optimize for wide changes in renewable energy sources, area capacity ratio, system loading, and inertia constant (H). Thus, integration of DSTS and WTS for AGC of interconnected system is safely attributed.

Graphical abstract


  • Automatic generation control (AGC);
  • Biogeography based optimization (BBO);
  • Dish-stirling solar thermal system (DSTS);
  • Hybrid system;
  • Random load perturbation (RLP);
  • Wind turbine system (WTS)

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