Monte–Carlo analysis of wind farm lightning-surge transients aided by LINET lightning-detection network data


Kernel density estimation of lightning overvoltages probability distribution.

State-of-the-art EMTP model of wind farm electrical systems.

Applicable for statistical and semi-statistical methods of insulation coordination.

Lightning-detection network data analysis for wind farm lightning incidence.

Striking distance and attractive radius of wind turbine lightning attractiveness.


This paper presents a statistical method of analysis of wind farm lightning-surge transients, which employs a sophisticate wind farm high-frequency-transients model developed within the EMTP software package. The method features a Monte–Carlo simulation applied to the numerical analysis of wind farm lightning transients—which produces a statistical depiction of overvoltages distribution within the wind farm electrical network—that could be used in a statistical and semi-statistical methods of wind farm equipment insulation coordination, or it could assist in wind farm lightning risk management and surge protection optimisation. Wind farm lightning incidence is computed with the aid of the LINET lightning-detection network data, while at the same time accounting for the actual wind turbine geometry, exposure, and terrain topography (orography). Wind turbine effective height, in exposed locations, is determined from the physical postulates governing the initiation of lightning. Subsequently obtained wind farm equipment overvoltages are statistically described by means of the kernel density estimation procedure. The application of the proposed method on the actual onshore wind farm is provided in the paper as well.


  • Lightning;
  • Wind farm;
  • LINET;
  • Transient analysis;
  • EMTP;
  • Kernel density estimation;
  • Monte–Carlo method

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