Mitigating wind exposure with zero-cost collar insurance


Wind energy is subject to price and volume risk.

Price risk can be hedged through long term forward contracts.

This article proposes a costless insurance scheme to mitigate volume risk.

The model is applied to a Brazilian wind farm on a quarterly basis.

The results show that there are possible contract regions in all quarters.


Renewable energy generation worldwide has relied increasingly on wind farms where wind energy is transformed into electricity. On the other hand, electricity prices are uncertain and wind speeds are highly variable, which exposes the producer to risks. Typically wind power producers enter into long term fixed price contracts in order to hedge against energy price risk, but these contracts expose the wind farm to energy volume risk, as they require delivery of the full amount of energy contracted, even if energy production falls short due to low wind speeds. To mitigate this risk, wind producers can purchase insurance. This article proposes a zero-cost collar insurance and develop a stochastic model to determine the feasible range of wind strikes for both the wind farm and the insurer. The results indicate there is a set of possible strike combinations that meets the objectives of both parties.


  • Wind power;
  • Energy insurance contract;
  • Stochastic models

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