This paper addresses a new formulation for PHEV charging stations with presence of wind power generation (WPG).
Simultaneously optimize two objectives, namely the benefits of DSM and WGO.
The uncertainty of load growth, electricity price and PHEV access to the charging station are considered.
Initial state of charge uncertainty is modeled based on scenario approach in PHEV batteries and wind turbine.
Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are becoming more attractive than internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). Hence, design and modeling of charging stations (CSs) has vital importance in distribution system level. In this paper, a new formulation for PHEV charging stations is presented with the strategic presence of wind power generation (WPG). This study considers constraints of the system losses, the regulatory voltage limits, and the charge/discharge schedule of PHEV based on the social behavior of drivers for appropriate placement of PHEV charging stations in electricity grid. The role of CSs and WPG units must be correctly assessed to optimize the investment and operation cost for the whole system. However, the wind generation owners (WGOs) have different objective functions which might be contrary to the objectives of distribution system manager (DSM). It is assumed that aggregating and management of charge/discharge program of PHEVs are smartly carried out by DSM. This paper presents a long-term bi-objective model for optimal planning of PHEV charging stations and WPG units in distribution systems which simultaneously optimize two objectives, namely the benefits of DSM and WGO. It also considers the uncertainty of load growth, electricity price and PHEV access to the charging station using Mont-Carlo simulation (MCS) method. Initial state of charge uncertainty is also modeled based on scenario approach in PHEV batteries and wind turbine power generation using weibull distribution. Non dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the optimization problem. The simulation has been conducted on the nine-bus system.
- Distribution network;
- PHEVs charging station planning;
- Wind power generation planning;
- Distribution system manager;
- Wind generation owner;
- System uncertainties
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.