The report has tested and confirmed a growing body of anecdotal evidence that solar farms can actively benefit local wildlife. It also further validates advice given by biodiversity specialists, such as the BRE National Solar Centre Biodiversity Guidance for Solar Developments , which demonstrates that solar PV can be combined with agricultural activity such as grazing while benefitting the natural health of the surrounding area.
The Effects of Solar Farms on Local Biodiversity: A Comparative Study was carried out by ecological consultants Clarkson & Woods and Wychwood Biodiversity and examined 11 solar farms in England and Wales alongside neighbouring control plots. The authors claim that the research is the most comprehensive and in depth UK study in the field so far.
Leonie Greene, spokesperson for the Solar Trade Association commented: “We’re delighted with the findings of this survey. It confirms that solar farms, when done properly, are an asset to our countryside and our natural environment.”
At each of the 11 selected sites various methods of land management were being used including seeding sites with a diverse seed mix, limiting the use of herbicides, conservation grazing or mowing, and management of marginal habitats for wildlife. The level of benefit to biodiversity is dependent on the management – the stronger the focus on wildlife management the better. In this way, the report conveys, solar farms provide a ‘mosaic’ of meadow habitat and important foraging grounds and shelter for many species.
The report suggests that the findings are not only beneficial for wildlife but could also provide ecosystem services important for people and agriculture. For example, by becoming net producers of pollinating insects, which are in decline across the UK, solar farms can promote the health of surrounding crops such as cereals, vegetables, soft fruits and orchard fruits, according to the research. Furthermore, ‘solar farms are unique in the farmed landscape in that they provide a high value ‘crop’ (solar power) while leaving the majority of the land area free for wildlife management.’ However, the authors call for more research in this area.