Bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Zymomonas mobilis from delignified coconut fibre mature and lignin extraction according to biorefinery concept


SEM, X-ray and crystallinity indexes have shown changes in the CFM after HPCSH.

High lignin solubilization from CFM was obtained in the HPCSH pretreatment.

High recovered lignin yield in the liquid phase (>91%).

Compositions of liquid phase and characterizations of recovered lignin.

The SSSF strategy resulted in the higher ethanol yield (>90%).


In search to increase the offer of liquid, clean, renewable and sustainable energy in the world energy matrix, the use of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs) for bioethanol production arises as a valuable alternative. The objective of this work was to analyze and compare the performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Zymomonas mobilis in the production of bioethanol from coconut fibre mature (CFM) using different strategies: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF). The CFM was pretreated by hydrothermal pretreatment catalyzed with sodium hydroxide (HPCSH). The pretreated CFM was characterized by X-ray diffractometry and SEM, and the lignin recovered in the liquid phase by FTIR and TGA. After the HPCSH pretreatment (2.5% (v/v) sodium hydroxide at 180 °C for 30 min), the cellulose content was 56.44%, while the hemicellulose and lignin were reduced 69.04% and 89.13%, respectively. Following pretreatment, the obtained cellulosic fraction was submitted to SSF and SSSF. Pichia stipitis allowed for the highest ethanol yield – 90.18% – in SSSF, 91.17% and 91.03% were obtained with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis, respectively. It may be concluded that the selection of the most efficient microorganism for the obtention of high bioethanol production yields from cellulose pretreated by HPCSH depends on the operational strategy used and this pretreatment is an interesting alternative for add value of coconut fibre mature compounds (lignin, phenolics) being in accordance with the biorefinery concept.

Graphical abstract


  • Hydrothermal pretreatment;
  • Bioethanol;
  • Lignin;
  • Phenolics;
  • Biorefinery;
  • Fermentation

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