Assessing a regional building applied PV potential – Spatial and dynamic analysis of supply and load matching


Linköping Regional PV roof potential is 19, 43 or 88% of present electricity demand.

Spatial-time distribution feasibility study of dynamic load matching of PV supply.

Altering Tilt and azimuth of PV panels can spread PV supply over the hours day season.


Electricity production by PV is growing world-wide, and grid parity of PV-electricity can be found in many countries, even in low sunlight countries, such as Sweden (at latitude 58°). High installation-rate of PV-systems poses a challenge to the grid-operator. Building-integrated PV-supply potential analysis was performed for Linköping municipality in Sweden based on GIS-data for all the buildings in the municipality. The Linköping model provides a high spatial resolution (>180 000 buildings). The data are sorted based on azimuth and tilt, categorized in steps of 10°, and then used to construct hourly power supply data. The supply data are fed into the existing electricity load-profile of Linköping municipality. The strength and novelty of the method is that it provides the possibility of varying the installation-rate in different spatial directions to better match the load-profile.

The results indicate a solar supply-rate of 19, 43 and 88% respectively if using the tilted roofs (>900 kWh/m2 × yr), the flat-roofs optimized with tilted panels for a winter solar supply and the fully available PV-area on existing buildings (8.1 km2). Nevertheless, in approximately 70, 1400 and >3000 h/yr, respectively, surplus-power is created, which could be used to match a future load in a wider electro-mobility scenario.

Graphical abstract


  • PV system;
  • Dynamic load matching;
  • Load profile;
  • Self-consumption;
  • Spatial-time distribution;
  • Regional PV potential

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