Determination of co-combustion properties and thermal kinetics of poultry litter/coal blends using thermogravimetry


Thermal properties and kinetics of poultry litter, coal and their blends were examined.

As the coal content of the blends increased, reactivity of the blends decreased.

Calculated Ea values were higher than low rank coals while lower than some bio-fuels.

A synergistic effect was also observed between poultry litter and coal samples.

Each blend has specific thermal decomposition profile, so no general conclusions were obtained.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the combustion properties and thermal kinetics of poultry litter. Co-combustion of poultry litter with low quality Turkish lignite was also studied. The experiments were performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under non-isothermal conditions. The Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method was used to determine activation energy. Activation energy of the samples was between 104.4 kJ/mol and 130.1 kJ/mol. Different thermal decomposition properties were detected for poultry litter/coal blends than for coal. The thermal properties of the prepared blends showed correlation with the percentage of the poultry litter in the samples. Furthermore, average activation energies of the blends decreased with increasing wt% of coal; the lowest activation energy was obtained with 70 wt% litter, the lowest litter wt% in the blend. A synergistic effect was also observed between poultry litter and coal samples during their co-combustion.


  • Poultry litter;
  • Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA);
  • Activation energy;
  • Biomass;
  • Co-combustion

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