Optimization of operational cost for a grid-supporting PV system with battery storage


An economically optimum schedule for a battery coupled to a PV system is proposed.

Power injection into the grid is controlled to reduce the reverse power flow.

Time around solar-noon is given high priority when limiting power feed into the grid.

Time-dependent grid feed-in limit is proposed.

The utility has the potential to buy energy from the storage for load levelling.


Coupling an energy storage to a photovoltaic (PV) system not only increases the self-consumption but also solves the over-voltage issues if the cycling of the storage is properly controlled. Whatever the application the storage is used for, the primary concern of the system owner is to maximize the profits. Therefore, this paper addresses an energy management system for a PV system coupled with battery energy storage, which maximizes the daily economic benefits while curtailing the power injection to the grid in such a way that helps to mitigate over-voltage problems caused by reverse power flow. A time dependent grid feed-in limit is proposed achieve this objective. The daily operational cost that includes the energy cost and the battery degradation cost is considered as the objective function. The non-linear constrained optimization problem is solved using dynamic programming. The analyses are made to investigate the economic benefits of charging the battery from the grid. It is found that there is a possibility for these systems for participating in load-levelling if batteries are charged from the PV system. In order for that to be feasible, the peak-hour sell-back price for the energy from storage should be higher than the off-peak utility electricity price.


  • Dynamic programming;
  • Energy management;
  • Load-levelling;
  • Photovoltaic systems;
  • Voltage quality

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